Ch 06 Amines and Amides

Chapter 6 Amines and Amides 3 Classification and Nomenclature of Amines 4 Amines • Amines and amides are abundant in nature They are a major component of proteins and enzymes nucleic acids alkaloid drugs etc (Alkaloids are N-containing weakly basic organic compounds thousands of these substances are known )

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Acids and Bases

Acidic and Basic Oxides The oxides that one uses to form acids and bases in aqueous solution often have reactivity that reflects their acidic or basic character Examples: Li 2O CaO and BaO react with water to form basic solutions and can react with acids directly to form salts Likewise SO 3 CO 2 and N 2O 5 form acidic aqueous solutions

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Hydrolysis

3 Remaining ions left side of table – undergo acid hydrolysis is –produce H 3O+ right side of table – undergo base hydrolysis – produce OH- amphiprotic – determine K a and K b to find dominant hydrolysis Examples: Determining A B or N Is the salt NaF Acidic basic or neutral in water? Dissociation: NaF Na+ + F-Spectator

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Combination of Organic and Inorganic Materials

Application Examples Model of Unifying Organic Resins and Fillers Heat resistance test of crosslinked polyethylene Left: treated Right: untreated Organic Resin Filler Untreated with Silane Coupling Agents The organic resin and filler do not fully combine so properties do not improve as expected Treated with Silane Coupling Agents Organic resin and filler bond together

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Derivatization of polar compounds for GC

Derivatization of polar compounds for GC Agenda •Introduction •Basic reactions • Silylation • Acylation • Alkylation • Esterification and transesterification •Developing a method •Troubleshooting 2 3 Basic Information •What is derivatization? • Changing the chemical characteristics of an analyte by reaction with an active agent •Why do derivatization? • To

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Maleic anhydride

IDENTIFICATION: Maleic anhydride appears as colorless needles or white lumps or pellets It has an irritating choking odor Maleic anhydride is very soluble in water and readily reacts with water to form maleic acid USE: Maleic anhydride is used to make other chemicals that are used in resins dyes drugs and agriculture

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Organic acid anhydride

An organic acid anhydride [citation needed] is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound An acid anhydride is a compound that has two acyl groups bonded to the same oxygen atom A common type of organic acid anhydride is a carboxylic anhydride where the parent acid is a carboxylic acid the formula of the anhydride being (RC(O)) 2 O Symmetrical

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Acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride or ethanoic anhydride is the chemical compound with the formula (CH 3 CO) 2 O Commonly abbreviated Ac 2 O it is the simplest isolable anhydride of a carboxylic acid and is widely used as a reagent in organic synthesis It is a colorless liquid that smells strongly of acetic acid which is formed by its reaction with moisture in the air

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Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives: Strong

Chem 263 Nov 28 2013 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives: Strong Nucleophiles The strong nucleophiles (Nu: -) that we have learned in this course are either hydride anion (H-) or alkyl anion (R-) As well remember that attack by strong nucleophiles is not

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Carboxylic acid reactions overview (article)

Read and learn for free about the following article: Carboxylic acid reactions overview If you're seeing this message it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website If you're behind a web filter please make sure that the domains * kastatic and * kasandbox are unblocked

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Raman spectroscopy: Basic principles and applications

Raman spectroscopy: Basic principles and applications • Basic principles - Resonance Raman scattering - Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) • Instrumentation -Spectrometer - Excitation sources • Raman in catalysis - In situ cells - In

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Overview of Types of Organic Reactions and Basic Concepts

Overview of Types of Organic Reactions and Basic Concepts of Organic Reaction Mechanisms SCH 102 Dr Solomon Derese 2 Reactions of organic compounds can be organized broadly in two ways by: I What types of reactions and II How these reactions occur A chemical reaction is the transformation of one chemical or collection of chemicals into another

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Oxides

Some oxides can react directly with water to form an acidic basic or amphoteric solution An amphoteric solution is a substance that can chemically react as either acid or base However it is also possible for an oxide to be neither acidic nor basic There are different properties which help distinguish between the three types of oxides The term anhydride (without water) refers to

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7 5 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Amines

13 7 5 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Amines 1) at low temperature a simple acid-base reaction occurs 2) at high temperatures or with suitable enzymes they form an amide and water Notice that this second reaction is analogous to the formation of an ester from an alcohol

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Oxides

Some oxides can react directly with water to form an acidic basic or amphoteric solution An amphoteric solution is a substance that can chemically react as either acid or base However it is also possible for an oxide to be neither acidic nor basic There are different properties which help distinguish between the three types of oxides The term anhydride (without water) refers to

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Acids and Bases

Acidic and Basic Oxides The oxides that one uses to form acids and bases in aqueous solution often have reactivity that reflects their acidic or basic character Examples: Li 2O CaO and BaO react with water to form basic solutions and can react with acids directly to form salts Likewise SO 3 CO 2 and N 2O 5 form acidic aqueous solutions

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Knoevenagel Condensation

Knoevenagel Condensation Doebner Modification The condensation of carbon acid compounds with aldehydes to afford α β-unsaturated compounds The Doebner Modification which is possible in the presence of carboxylic acid groups includes a pyridine-induced decarboxylation

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Organic acid anhydride

An organic acid anhydride [citation needed] is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound An acid anhydride is a compound that has two acyl groups bonded to the same oxygen atom A common type of organic acid anhydride is a carboxylic anhydride where the parent acid is a carboxylic acid the formula of the anhydride being (RC(O)) 2 O Symmetrical

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Aspirin Synthesis

aspirin were going to be used pharmaceutically it would require even further purification The main impurity in the crystallized aspirin will be salicylic acid which will co-precipitate with the aspirin if the procedure is done too quickly The first method you will use to determine the purity is the melting point of your product We

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1 Heterocyclic Compounds: An Introduction

Figure 1 1 Examples of heterocyclic compounds Table 1 1 Main three- and four-membered heterocycles Ring size Heteroatom N O S Other 3 N H Aziridine O Oxirane S Thiirane N H NH Diaziridine O O Dioxirane O NH Oxaziridine 4 NH Azetidine O Oxetane S Thietane Se P R Seletane Phosphetane 2j 1 Heterocyclic Compounds: An Introduction

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Chemical Reactions of Amines: Preparation Reactions

Chemical Reactions of Amines Amines can act as both bases and nucleophiles due to the unshared electron pair Basic Nature of Amines In this section we will look at the basic nature of some common amines Aniline is less basic than ammonia The phenyl group exerts an inductive effect i e it withdraws electrons This results in the lower

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EU REACH: SVHCs Authorization Candidate List (as of Dec 2014)

EU REACH: SVHCs Authorization Candidate List (as of Dec 2014) EU REACH Authorization Candidate List – Total 161 SVHCs (as of Dec 2014) The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) amended the Candidate List Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs) The REACH Candidate List of Authorization is expanded to 161 SVHCs in total Legal obligations that companies may

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Derivatization of polar compounds for GC

Derivatization of polar compounds for GC Agenda •Introduction •Basic reactions • Silylation • Acylation • Alkylation • Esterification and transesterification •Developing a method •Troubleshooting 2 3 Basic Information •What is derivatization? • Changing the chemical characteristics of an analyte by reaction with an active agent •Why do derivatization? • To

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Basic Chemistry Vocabulary List

Basic Chemistry Vocabulary List • absolute temperature: This is a temperature reading made relative to absolute zero We use the unit of Kelvins for these readings • absolute zero: This is the lowest temperature possible If you remember that temperature is a measurement of how much atoms move around in a solid

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Overview of Types of Organic Reactions and Basic Concepts

Overview of Types of Organic Reactions and Basic Concepts of Organic Reaction Mechanisms SCH 102 Dr Solomon Derese 2 Reactions of organic compounds can be organized broadly in two ways by: I What types of reactions and II How these reactions occur A chemical reaction is the transformation of one chemical or collection of chemicals into another

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